Bohemian Rhapsody: Josef Masopust and Dukla

Cold War Europe was a sinister place. Behind the Iron Curtain, popular opinion told us, it was a grey, totalitarian world where spies drank thick black coffee in cafes, children informed on their parents, smoke-chugging cars rolled off production lines and food queues, for inedible black bread, went on for miles The lingua franca was strictly Russian.

As for football, teams were supposedly mysterious, functional, militaristic and tough. They were known as “Crack” Hungarians, Bulgarians and East Germans. But while these teams were hard to beat, it was the latin contingent in Europe that emerged as the dominant forces, notably the Spanish and Italians. In 1962, the trend was broken when one Josef Masopust, a 31 year-old Czech, was named European Footballer of the Year.

Masopust combined the silky skills of a Brazilian with the typical work-rate of an Eastern Bloc forager. He was a state hero – he still is – in the former Czechoslavakia after leading his country to third place in the European Championship in 1960 and runners-up in the World Cup two years later. Along with Lev Yashin, Ferenc Puskas and Florian Albert, Masopust was one of the finest players to emerge from the Iron Curtain.

Masopust spent 14 years with Dukla Prague, a club that has been made famous by Half Man Half Biscuit’s, “All I want for Christmas is a Dukla Prague away kit.” But the fact is, Dukla were never a very popular outfit because of the club’s army roots.

Even when Dukla were at their peak, such as in 1965-66 when they won the Czech league for the fifth time in six years, they averaged 9,000 people per game, while Prague rivals Sparta and Slavia were drawing bigger crowds. Despite this, Masopust himself became a much-loved figure.

He was the figurehead of Communist era football in Czechsolavakia. Dukla were formed as ATK in 1948 by the Czechoslovak Army, taking the name Dukla in commemoration of the Battle of the Dukla Pass in World War Two. Being the Army team, Dukla could take their pick of the country’s best players, including those of Sparta and Slavia, the two clubs that dominated Czech football before the War. It was highly competitive, as the club had 64 players to choose from, many of whom were established members of the national team. Hardly surprising that Dukla won title after title in the 1960s, with Masopust at the heart of their midfield.

Born in 1931, the son of a lignite miner, Masopust joined Dukla in 1952. He was born near Most, a town that suffered at the hands of demolition as much as it did from two world wars. It had changed hands several times over a 200-year period, passing from Austro-Hungarian rule to Czechoslavakia, then from Nazi Germany back to Czechoslavakia and then finally, on to the Czech Republic. Masopust’s first club was ZSJ Uhlomost (now called FK Nanik Most), whom he signed for in 1950 as an old fashioned left half who could not only control a game with his immaculate passing, but also run hard for 90 minutes. He then went on to ZSJ Technomat Teplice before joining Dukla.

Masopust’s transfer to Dukla was controversial as many clubs were interested in him, but the Army club’s “cherry picking” strategy made the young man from Most unpopular, in stark contrast to the way he was idolised later on in his career.

He made his debut for Czechoslavakia in 1954 and went on to win 63 caps. He featured in the 1958 World Cup, but it was the 1960 European Championship that first earmarked Masopust on the international stage. The Czechs finished in third place, losing in the semi-final to the USSR.

Two years on in Chile, Masopust and his team-mates surprised everyone by reaching the World Cup final. The Czechs had qualified for the trip to South America by disposing of Scotland and the Republic of Ireland but in Chile, nobody gave them much chance of coming out of a group comprising holders Brazil, Mexico and Spain. Masopust later recalled that the Czech team had been told not to unpack their bags as they would be leaving [Chile] soon.

But they defied the odds and beat Spain 1-0, drew 0-0 with Brazil and were beaten in their last group game by Mexico, but still qualified for the quarter-finals. Over the next two rounds, they beat Hungary 1-0 and Yugoslavia 3-1. The Czechs, who had developed their so-called “passing game”, Ceske Ulice, to good effect, found themselves in the final with Brazil.

Masopust, never the most prolific of scorers, put the Czechs ahead after 15 minutes. He told World Soccer in 1970: “Match by match we grew in confidence and stature, and in the final, we had nothing to lose. Before the kick-off it was agreed all round we’d show everyone we could play a bit, without rough play or defensive tactics, and suddenly we were in front.”

“Right winger Pospichal, who had replaced Stribani and Kvasnak, started the move with a one-two out on the right. Pospichal was shuffling up to Nilton Santos, who stood away and refused to challenge, and with Zozimo and Mauro moving across to cover him, they left a terrific hole on the left. I was on my way. At every step I knew I would score if I got the ball. I ran 30 yards to the edge of the Brazilian box, and, with Nilton Santos still standing off, Pospichal laid the pass just right. All I had to do was control the ball, look up and pop it home.”

Masopust 2
European Footballer of the Year, 1962

But almost immediately, Brazil equalised. “For one minute, we were champions of the world,” recalled Masopust. “But then Amarildo scored and in the second half, they scored two more from Zito and Vava. It was disappointing to lose, of course, but the legacy from that time lasted all these years.”

The Czechs went home bemoaning that goalkeeper Viliam Schrojf, named the best in the tournament before the final, had made two errors that had helped Brazil on their way. “They were the best team in the world, though, despite not having Pele in their side, who was injured,” admitted Masopust.

But Pele, among others, was left with a great impression of the Czech maestro. “Masopust was a midfielder of such technique he gave the impression of being born in Brazil, not in Europe. He was comparable to players like Platini, Beckenbauer and Xavi. He was also a man of great intelligence off the pitch.”

By the end of 1962, the pundits had recognised Masopust as one of the outstanding players of the World Cup and he was awarded the Ballon d’Or, the Golden Ball, by France Football as Europe’s top player. He was voted number one ahead of the great Eusebio of Benfica and Karl-Heinz Schnellinger of FC Cologne. Masopus dedicated the award to his colleagues in Chile, but the critics knew only too well that without the player known as “the Knight”, Czechoslavakia would not have reached the final. World Soccer, in February 1963, commented: “Some may still say ‘Masopust…never heard of him’, but take it from me, he’s an outstanding ball player and a shrewd tactician. The award could not have been given to a nicer fellow, or a more dedicated footballer.”

Indeed, Masopust’s approach was much admired. Brian Glanville, in his seminal work, “The Story of the World Cup”, said: “Seriousness was the keynote of his game and his personality. In hot, gay Rio, he was the player who spent his evenings quietly with his fiancée, his Sunday mornings in church.”

Money never really came into it. After Chile 1962, the Czech team returned to Prague as heroes and were invited to a reception at the Palace at Hradcani to meet the Minister of Defence. The squad listened to speeches for over an hour and then, expecting to get some kind of bonus, each member was presented with a book on the importance of sport in society, autographed by the Minister, the author.

Back at Dukla, Mosopust played his part in continued success for the club. In 1966-67. Dukla, with Masopust 35 years old and playing a more withdrawn role, reached the last four of the European Cup. They had beaten Esbjerg of Denmark, Belgian champions Anderlecht and an up-and-coming Ajax before losing to eventual winners Celtic.

In 1968, the Dukla legend was released and was allowed to play abroad. He went to Belgium as player coach of Crossing Molenbeek. He returned to Dukla in 1973 as coach and was asked to manage his country in 1984.

Josef Masopust remains a legend in his own lifetime – he’s still in circulation and much sought after whenever World Cup years come around. The Czech magazine, Gol, named him “Czech footballer of the century” a few years ago, and rightly so. As World Soccer said in June 1962, he was “one of the modern masters”.

The Euros – 1976 to 1988: Penalties, Platini and volleys

The European Championships evolved from a four-team event to an eight team affair in 1980 and although that particular edition was somewhat tame, in 1984 and 1988, Europe was treated to two excellent tournaments in France and Germany respectively.

Prior to the reformatting, 1976 produced one of the competition’s outstanding moments, the famous penalty from Antonín Panenka in Belgrade. Everyone anticipated a re-run of the 1974 World Cup between West Germany and the Netherlands, but the Czechs pulled off a unique double.

Czechoslavakia 1976:  
Ivo Viktor, Anton Ondruš, Ján Pivarnik, Koloman Gögh, Jozef Čapkovič, Karol Dobiaš, Jozef Móder, Antonín Panenka, Marian Masny, Zdenêk Nehoda, Ján Švehlík, Ladislav Jurkemik, František Vesely.

Manager: Václav Ježek

Achievement: European Championship winners 1976, beating West Germany on penalties in the final after disposing of Netherlands in the semi-final and USSR in the last eight. Came through a qualifying group that included England, Portugal and Cyprus.

Key men: Zdenêk Nehoda, striker/winger who netted a goal every three games. Played for Dukla and then went to play in Belgium, France and Germany later in his career; Marián Masny, skilful winger, rated among the world’s best, from Slovan Bratislava; Antonin Panenka, attacking midfielder, famous for his jinked penalty that won the Euros but also his quality passing and dead-ball expertise.

Perception: Surprise winners of the Euros who beat both of the 1974 World Cup finalists. Very skilful in attack, but an inconsistent team. 

West Germany 1980: Harald Schumacher, Uli Stielike, Berard Dietz, Karlheinz Förster, Manfred Kaltz, Hans-Peter Briegel, Bernd Schuster, Hansi Müller, Karl-Heinz Rummenigge, Horst Hrubesch, Klaus Allofs, Berhard Cullmann.

 Jupp Derwall

Achievement: European Championship winners 1980, beating Belgium in the final after meeting Netherlands, Greece and Belgium in the group phase. Also faced Turkey, Wales and Malta in the qualifying competition.

Key men: Hans-Peter Briegel, versatile defender who played for Kaiserslautern before going to Italy. Won 72 caps for West Germany; Karl-Heinz Rummenigge, flexible forward who possessed great speed, agility and goalscoring power. Scored 45 goals in 95 appearances for his country; Bernd Schuster, powerful and skilful midfielder who never quite lived up to his early promise. Played for Köln before moving to Spain and appeared for both Real Madrid and Barcelona. Won 21 caps for West Germany.

Perception: Not as compelling as other German teams of the period, but good enough to win the European Championship in Italy.

France 1984: Joël Bats, Patrick Battiston, Maxime Bossis, Yvon Le Roux, Jean-Francois Domerque, Luis Fernandez, Alain Giresse, Michel Platini, Bernard Lacombe, Bruno Bellone, Manuel Amoros, Bernard Genghini, Jean-Marc Ferreri, Dominique Rocheteau, Jean Tigana, Didier Six.

Manager: Michel Hidalgo

Achievement: European Championship winners 1984; World Cup semi-finals 1982 and 1986. In Euro 1984, in which they were the host nation, beat Denmark, Belgium, Yugoslavia and Portugal before overcoming Spain in the final.

Key men: Michel Platini, one of the outstanding players in the history of European football. Elegant, skilful, incisive and capable of scoring goals on the floor and in the air. A marvellous individual; Alain Giresse, stocky midfielder who dovetailed with Platini. An intelligent playmaker who was agile and capable of accelerating from midfield; Jean Tigana, one of the best box-to-box midfielders of his generation. Great pace and stamina, he was also an excellent team player.

Perception: A formidable team with an all-star midfield. Very unfortunate not to win the World Cup, they were the best team in Europe in the mid-1980s.

Netherlands 1988: Hans van Bruekelen, Berry van Aerle, Frank Rijkaard, Ronald Koeman, Adri van Tiggelen, Gerald Vanenberg, Jan Wouters, Arnold Muhren, Erwin Koeman, Ruud Gullit, Marco van Basten, John Bosman, Wim Kieft.

Manager: Rinus Michels

Achievement: European Championship winners 1988, beating USSR in the final after winning 2-1 against hosts West Germany in the semi-final. Also faced England, Ireland and the Soviets in the group stage. Earlier came top in a qualifying group that featured Greece, Hungary, Poland and Cyprus

Key men: Frank Rijkaard, quick, strong and tenacious defender who read the game perfectly. Started with Ajax and went on to be a key member of the AC Milan team of the late-80s- early 1990s. 73 caps for the Netherlands; Ruud Gullit, skilful and versatile midfielder who was pivotal in the re-emergence of the Dutch in the late 1980s. Strong, extremely athletic and very good in the air. Could also play as a striker; Marco van Basten, one of the most complete and exciting strikers of his generation. Nicknamed “the swan of Utrecht” due to his elegance and intelligent attacking play. Capable of scoring spectacular goals, such as his volley in the Euro final of 1988.

Perception: The latter day exponents of modified Total Football. Wonderful technique and individualism. Short-lived success, but a brilliant team and worthy European champions.

Photo: ALAMY

Crossing the Danube – the story of the inaugural Mitropa Cup

The sort of action the Mitropa played host to in the 1920s and 1930s
The sort of action the Mitropa played host to in the 1920s and 1930s

From the late 19th century and into the 1920s, Vienna became what many writers have called a “centre of fermentation”, propagated by the cultural and intellectual elite of the city. Ideas, ideaologies, social movements, progressive medicine, music and literature filled the air of Vienna’s cafés and coffee houses. The Vienna Circle, a group of philosophers hell-bent on bringing scientific enlightenment to people, also emerged from the city.

Football also benefitted from this culture of cerebral curiosity. Today, in Britain, we see the public house as the “social club” of the game of football. In 1920s Vienna, indeed much of central Europe, the coffee house was where the game, its structure and its tactics were discussed. Amid the cups of thick, dark Viennese coffee, the very roots of the UEFA Champions League can be traced.

UEFA was formed in 1954, the European Cup came a year later, in 1955-56. But the idea of a pan-European football competition dates back to the late 19th century. It was not so much pan-European, but a product of empire – the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Needless to say, this competition, which ran from 1897 to 1911, was dominated by teams from Vienna, Budapest and Prague.

While many people assumed that Britain was the spiritual centre of the game, continental Europe was making rapid strides and, arguably, becoming the seat of innovation in football’s evolution. Most of the game’s bright ideas seem to have been germinated in France or central Europe. But, ironically, the inventor of the Austro-Hungarian Challenge Cup was one John Gramlick Senior, an English plumber who was also a co-founder of the Vienna Cricket Club.

The competition ended in 1911 with Wiener Sport Club (WSC) beating Ferencvaros of Hungary, but after the first world war, the concept of a European football competition was revisited. By this time, professionalism was starting to sweep across the region, with Austria turning pro in 1924, Hungary in 1925 and Czechoslavakia a year later. In Vienna in 1927, the momentum behind this idea resulted in the formation of the Mitropa Cup, as well as a competition for national teams, Coupe Internationale europeenne, also known as The Dr Gero Cup.

Visionary Meisl

Giants of the game (l to r): Herbert Chapman, Hugo Meisl and Jimmy Hogan
Giants of the game (l to r): Herbert Chapman, Hugo Meisl and Jimmy Hogan

The driving force being the Mitropa (an abbreviation of Mittel Europa, or central Europe), or to give it its full name La Coupe de l’Europe Centralewas the head of the Austrian Football Association, Hugo Meisl. Meisl was the sort of character who could name the likes of Vittorio Pozzo (Italy’s World Cup winning coach) and Arsenal’s Herbert Chapman among his friends. It is not an exaggeration to say that Meisl was the most influential figure in European football in the first half of the 20th century. He was clearly a child of the Habsburg empire, born near Ostrava in Bohemia, Jewish, multi-lingual and between 1912-14, the coach of the Austria-Hungary team. Meisl was also instrumental in bringing professional football to Austria and later coached the legendary Wunderteam. His experiences during the first world war in Serbia helped formulate a belief that sport, and football in particular, could help develop bonds between nations.

The initial competition would involve two teams from each of Austria, Hungary, Czechoslavakia and Yugoslavia, nations from where some of the more progressive football ideas were emerging. British football seemed still rooted in the hefty boot upfield and lacked the finesse of what people started to refer to as the “Danubian style”. This revolved around a modification of the classic 2-3-5 formation in which the centre forward played in a more withdrawn position. It was first developed by the Austrians, Czechs and Hungarians in the mid-1920s, but wasn’t until much later that British teams started to adopt it. It is likely that this more scientific approach was developed among the coffee-drinking, intellectual – frequently Jewish – chess-playing fraternity. Today, there is still a Mitropa Cup, and it is a chess competition!

This was all very alien to England, whose football team never ventured much further than cross-Channel hops to France and Belgium in the 1920s. The likes of Belgium, France and Holland were way behind the central Europeans. In fact, when England did travel to Austria, Hungary and Czechoslavakia, they didn’t come away with a victory.


Meisl was keen that each Mitropa tie should consist of two legs, thereby laying the seeds for the European competitions that were to follow in the 1950s. There were also suggestions that the competition should be run on a league basis, but these were rejected owing to scheduling difficulties.

In Austria, Admira Vienna had won the league and they, along with third-placed Rapid Vienna (instead of Brigittenauer) were invited to take part in the inaugural Mitropa Cup. The organisers wanted the strongest possible field and they also preferred the “centre of competence” to come from Vienna, Prague and Budapest.

Admira, whose identity would be gradually eroded down the decades after mergers and rebranding, were in the midst of a golden period. From Czechoslavakia came Sparta Prague, the 1926-27 champions and the runners-up Slavia Prague. Sparta, like Admira, were enjoying a period of success – they had won the last two Czech championships and they were coached by Scotsman John Dick. It was during this time that the nickname “Iron Sparta” was developed. The team of the era was really Slavia, Sparta’s great rivals – they won the Czech league eight times between 1925 and 1938.

As for Hungary, domestic football was dominated by Budapest. In 1926-27, Ferencvaros won the title and Ujpest finished runners-up. But while Ujpest took their place in the Mitropa, “Fradi” were not invited. Instead, MTK Hungaria, a Budapest club favoured by the city’s Jewish population, were included. This may have been something of an “old pal’s act” as Meisl was a great friend of MTK’s coach, the Englishman  Jimmy Hogan, who had been very influential in shaping Meisl’s footballing philosophy. Hogan was one of a number of football pioneers from England who found greater fortune abroad than in their own country. He was credited, to some extent, with developing the style of play that Hungary would use to devastating effect more than two decades after the launch of the Mitropa Cup.

Sparta Prague 1927
Sparta Prague 1927

Yugoslavia’s contribution came in the form of 1927 champions Hadjuk Split (their first title) and runners-up OFK Belgrade. It was a tough field, but the two favourites were Admira and Sparta Prague. They were drawn to meet each other in the first round.

Early exchanges

The first games kicked off on Sunday August 14, 1927. In Vienna, a hat-trick by Rapid’s 19 year-old forward, Johann Hoffmann, helped the home side to an 8-1 win against Hadjuk.  In Belgrade, OFK were beaten by Hogan’s men 2-4. But the game of the day was in Prague, where Sparta trounced Admira 5-1. Two of Sparta’s goals came from Evzen Vesely, not normally a first choice forward and barely seen again. Admira, and the Austrian football authorities, were shocked. A week later, Slavia Prague were in action, thrashing Ujpest 4-0. It was clear that the two Czech sides would take some stopping.

The second legs, on August 28, did little to disperse that view. When Sparta travelled to Vienna, they faced a rampant Admira team that raced into a 5-1 lead. Anton Schall, a 20 year-old forward who would later represent Austria in the 1934 World Cup, scored twice , but it was a brace from that man Vesely who put Sparta through with two late goals.

Rapid added to their 8-1 win with a 1-0 victory in Split, while MTK added another four to their first leg win in Belgrade. Two of their goals came from Gyorgy Orth, an inside forward who had returned from a stint in Pisa, despite struggling constantly with fitness. Ujpest and Slavia drew 2-2 in their second leg.

So in the semi-finals, it was two Czech sides and one each from Austria and Hungary. There was a hint of controversy about the MTK v Sparta tie. The first leg was drawn 2-2 in Budapest and after a 0-0 draw in Prague, the plan was to stage a third game. But Sparta complained that MTK’s Konrad Kalman, a veteran forward who had been playing in the US for Brooklyn Wanderers, was ineligible to play in the semi-final. Konrad, who was named as one of World Soccer’s 100 greatest players of all time in 1999 (he played 12 times for Hungary and later managed Bayern Munich, FC Zurich and Malmo, among others), had not received international clearance and as a result, MTK were disqualified, sending Sparta through to the final.

In the other semi-final, Slavia Prague and Rapid Vienna shared four goals in the first leg, largely due to a virtuoso performance from Slavia’s legendary goalkeeper Frantisek Planicka. He kept Rapid’s strike force at bay with a string of acrobatic saves. Planicka, ranked as his country’s finest-ever custodian, captained Czechoslavakia in the 1934 World Cup. He was nicknamed “the cat of Prague” and drew comparisons with the great Zamora of Spain, among others. But Planicka couldn’t stop Rapid from winning the second leg 2-1, with Ferdinand Wessely striking a spectacular free kick past the great keeper.

The final, then, was Czechoslavakia v Austria, Sparta v Rapid. It was the sort of decider that Meisl and his colleagues must have yearned for. The two countries had recently met in the Dr Gero Cup and rivalry was fierce between the old empire stable-mates.

The final

Rapid Vienna 1927
Rapid Vienna 1927

The first leg, on October 30, 1927, drew 25,000 people to the Letna Stadium (now the Generali and still home to Sparta Prague). The home side was captained by Karel Pesek-Kada, a Moravian who was something of a sporting hero in Czechoslavakia having won a bronze medal in the 1920 Olympic games at Ice Hockey. Pesek’s matinee idol looks made him a popular figure in Czech football between 1913 and 1933, a lengthy career that included more than 40 caps for Czechoslavakia.

Rapid had Hans Horvath in their forward line, one of the outstanding players of his generation. He had joined Rapid in the summer of 1927 from Simmeringer where he had earned a reputation as a highly technical player with extremely accurate passing ability. But Pesek got Sparta off to a perfect start with a goal in the first minute. Josef Sima made it 2-0 with 14 minutes gone, but Rapid hit back through Franz Weselik. Sparta restored their two-goal advantage on the half hour through Josef Silny. By half-time it was 3-2 to Sparta after Wesely had added another for Rapid. The second half saw Sparta surge forward and Silny and Adolf Patek (who enjoyed a successful managerial career after the second world war) added three goals to give them a 6-2 first leg lead. Sparta’s silky football had proved too much for Rapid.

The second leg was held at the Hohe Warte stadium, which until the construction of the Prater (now Ernst Happel) Stadium, hosted many big games in Vienna. It was primarily First Vienna’s home. Rapid’s coach, Edi Bauer – who named himself in the starting line-up –  adopted a physical approach to try and unsettle Sparta. The Austrian side kicked, punched and shoved their opponents, but referee Mr Eymers only sent off a Sparta player, Antonin Perner. Sparta were very much out-of-sorts, and Rapid led 2-0 after 55 minutes. But when Sparta scored through Silny with eight minutes to go, it was all over for the home side – 7-4 on aggregate.

The Viennese crowd, which numbered some 40,000, was not happy and at the presentation of the trophy, Sparta skipper Pesek was struck by a stone. The crowd invaded the pitch and to protect the victorious Sparta players, around 200 policeman formed a “ring of steel”. It was an unfortunate finale to an ambitious competition that had already captured the imagination of the public in old Europe!

The Mitropa Cup went from strength to strength, but its halcyon days were in the pre-WW2 days. It provided a blueprint for what was to follow in the 1950s. Mitropa Cup games were among the first to be broadcast live on the radio and organized away travel for supporters also emerged in the years ahead. After the World Cup, which didn’t come onto the scene until 1930, the Mitropa Cup was arguably the most significant competition in the inter-war period. It was the product of a vision of European unity and sporting nationalism – in effect, it was as romantic as a Strauss Waltz!

Mitropa Cup Finals – 1927-39
1927: Sparta Prague (Czech) beat Rapid Vienna (Austria) 7-4 on aggregate
1928: Ferencvaros (Hungary) beat Rapid Vienna (Austria) 10-6 on aggregate
1929: Ujpest (Hungary) beat Slavia Prague (Czech) 7-3 on aggregate
1930: Rapid Vienna (Austria) beat Slavia Prague (Czech) 4-3 on aggregate
1931: First Vienna (Austria) beat Wiener SC (Austria) 5-3 on aggregate
1932: Bologna (Italy) awarded cup after semi-finalists ejected from competition
1933: Austria Vienna (Austria) beat Ambrosiana Inter (Italy) 4-3 on aggregate
1934: Bologna (Italy) beat Admira Vienna (Austria) 7-4 on aggregate
1935: Sparta Prague (Czech) beat Ferencvaros 4-2 on aggregate
1936: Austria Vienna (Austria) beat Sparta Prague (Czech) 1-0 on aggregate
1937: Ferencvaros (Hungary) beat Lazio (Italy) 9-6 on aggregate
1938: Slavia Prague (Czech) beat Ferencvaros (Hungary) 4-2 on aggregate
1939: Ujpest (Hungary) beat Ferencvaros (Hungary) 6-3 on aggregate