Eusébio the great

SEVENTY-NINE years ago, in Mozambique, Eusébio da Silva Ferreira was born. It’s fashionable to liberally throw the word “legend” around, but very few footballers actually achieve that status in their lifetime, let alone when they pass from view and their legacy is grainy video footage or yellowing newspaper coverage. Eusébio was so good he inspired many nicknames, many of which defy political correctness in today’s world. Pantera Negra or in English, Black Panther is one of them. Today, he may be called “the Panther”, but the nickname was not to deride his African roots. Panthers are strong, muscular, graceful and powerful, rather like the great man in his prime. In footballing terms, he was feared by opposition defenders.

It’s hard to imagine he was known by any of these names off, or indeed, on the pitch. They were surely media tags, coined by journalists eager to add some drama to Eusébio’s reputation. When one of his team-mates wanted the ball, did they call to him, “Hey, Black Panther, over here,” or did Simoes, Torres or Graca use one of his nicknames: “Well played Black Panther, my old son”?  No. But if ever a nickname suited a player it was “Panther”.

I first came across Eusébio in 1968, staring at me from a London Evening News special edition for the 1968 European Cup final. A school teacher lent me her copy of it to read ahead of the final between Manchester United and Benfica which was on TV later that night. She told me that Benfica would win because “Eusébio will be too good for Manchester United.”  She was wrong, but this very game started me scanning publications like The International Football Book, Football Monthly and Goal  as I was first introduced to the world of European football.  Eusébio was arguably the first foreign player I became truly aware of.

This was also partly due to the impact he made two years earlier in the World Cup. Although England won the competition and the FIFA player of the tournament was Bobby Charlton, the real star of the 1966 World Cup was Eusebio. He was the leading scorer in the finals with nine goals and won the “Bronze Ball” from FIFA as the third best player. He was also in the “All-Star Team”. But in truth, Eusebio’s contribution outstripped any other individual in 1966.

Eusébio’s performance against Brazil, dethroning the champions and pushing Pele left of stage, prompted a wave of headlines that a new force had arrived, “the King is dead, long live the [new] King”.  But when his colleagues mercilessly hacked down the old monarch, his successor stood by him as the stricken Brazilian was being treated. “Because he was my friend.” This was by no means an isolated example of Eusébio’s humility and decency.

And then in the quarter-finals, Mozambique’s favourite son single-handedly dragged Portugal from 3-0 down to win 5-3 against North Korea, scoring four goals in the process.  In the official FIFA film of the 1966 competition, Brian Glanville’s script said it all when commiserating with the underdogs: “How hard that they should meet Eusébio.”

Portugal lost 2-1 to England in the semi-final, a game that still rankles with the Portuguese as the FA switched the game to Wembley from the intended Goodison Park. On the field, Eusebio was shackled by Nobby Stiles, but still scored. Bobby Charlton, England’s own Eusébio in terms of cultural status, scored twice and the Portuguese, who had charmed all but Brazilian ball-players, were out. Eusebio, stymied for 90 minutes, left the field in tears. We never saw him again in the World Cup.

What happened next is open to debate. Eusébio, who had shone brightly in the shop window, was said to be bound for Italy, signing for cash-rich Inter Milan. There are a number of theories why this never happened. Firstly, Italy had been humbled in the World Cup and in the aftermath, the footballing authorities decided it was in the best interests of the national team to restrict the import of foreign players. The story that Antonio Salazar, the Portuguese dictator intervened and prevented Benfica’s greatest asset from moving abroad has greater credibility. There is another consideration in that Eusébio may not have relished catenaccio week-in, week-out. Whatever  the reason, Eusébio stayed with Benfica and ran out at Wembley in 1968 to face England’s finest once more.

United beat Benfica 4-1, but in normal time, with the scores 1-1, he looked set to score. He shot with his left foot with power, but Alex Stepney stopped the ball. Thwarted by some brave goalkeeping, Eusébio congratulated the United man. It was a scene that has been remembered, and replayed, many times down the years.

It’s why Eusébio was so revered in Britain. No trip to Benfica by the TV cameras was complete without a shot of Eusébio in the stand, invariably looking pained due to his failing health. Players like Pele, Bobby Charlton and Franz Beckenbauer treat each other as retired old adversaries, full of respect for each other’s ability and sportsmanship, and that same camaraderie always extended to Eusébio. Will the current generation be as generous to each other when they retire to their mansions? It’s doubtful.

What is also worth questioning is whether a “Eusébio” from Mozambique could emerge in the way he did in the early 1960s. He was a child of the colonies, adopted by the conqueror. It’s a habit that has been on the decline for years. Africans play for their country these days. If that had been the case in 1961, we may never have seen Eusébio on the biggest stage. As it is, the technology wasn’t there to give us a better legacy than we have today. But just watch the 1966 World Cup film and marvel at the power and grace of one of the greats.

Photo: PA Images

Great Reputations: Portugal 1966 – the alternative champions

ASIDE from the image of Bobby Moore holding the Jules Rimet trophy aloft, one of the abiding memories of the 1966 World Cup is of Eusébio in full flight, the leading scorer and the most exciting player of the tournament. If you asked most people who would have been worthy champions if England had not won, the answer would undoubtedly be Portugal, who came through a tough group and captivated the English public with their all-out attacking football.

If England were the official world champions, then Portugal were arguably the most popular alternative. Eusébio was well known to international football afficianados before the World Cup, thanks to his role in Benfica’s European exploits. The Lisbon Eagles had won the European Cup in 1961 and 1962, briefly assuming the crown from Real Madrid as the continent’s top side.

Eusébio arrived at Benfica almost by accident. The club’s manager, Bela Guttmann was having a haircut in Lisbon and the coach of Brazil’s São Paulo told him about an exciting young player from Africa he had come across. Guttmann, ever the opportunist, sought him out and signed him – it was none other than the fresh-faced Eusébio, who was signed for the equivalent of € 2,000.

Portugal’s Eusebio gives an impromptu pitchside interview after emerging from the tunnel. Portugal v North Korea, July 1966

In the second of Benfica’s European finals, Benfica beat Real Madrid 5-3 in Amsterdam and Eusébio scored twice. The team also included António Simões, Mário Coluna and José Augusto, all of whom would play their part in the 1966 World Cup. But the jewel in the crown was Eusébio, a 20 year-old forward from the Portuguese colony of Mozambique.

By 1966, Benfica had lost their crown, falling victims to the hard-nosed and industrialised methods of Italy’s catenaccio experts from Milan. In 1963, AC Milan beat Benfica at Wembley in the final and two years later, Inter won 1-0 in the San Siro. Although Eusébio was joint top scorer in the competition in 1965-66, he was overshadowed by the emerging George Best, who had knocked Benfica out of the competition at the quarter-final stage.

Underdogs

Portugal had never qualified for the World Cup finals before 1966. In the qualifying competition, they were drawn in a group containing Czechoslavakia, Romania and Turkey. They won their first four games with Eusébio netting five goals in the first three, including a hat-trick against Turkey in a 5-1 win. While the Czechs, Turks and Romanians harmed their own chances by beating each other, a 0-0 draw in Porto was enough to send Portugal through to England, finishing top with nine points from six games.

Nobody really saw them as contenders even though they had the advantage of being able to call on talent from their colonies. Almost half the Portuguese team was from Angola or Mozambique.  Portugal were placed in pot three in the draw for the finals, which meant they were destined for a challenging group. Brazil, the holders, Hungary (built around their 1964 Olympic gold medallists) and Bulgaria represented 1966’s own “group of death”. The smart money was not heading towards the Iberian peninsula, despite the presence of Eusébio.

Brazil were not the team of 1962, their squad included Djalma Santos (37), Garrincha (32), Zito (33) and Gilmar (35). Pelé, at 25, was in his prime, but he was also a target for the bruising and methodical Europeans. Brazil, despite winning in Europe in 1958, were a little uncomfortable when they arrived in England and were wary of how European football had evolved in recent years. They were far more cautious than their winning teams of 1958 and 1962.

Some people saw Eusébio as the heir to Pelé’s throne and by the end of the tournament, the Santos forward was being written-off and the football world was singing “the king is dead, long live the King” in praise of the Benfica talisman.

But Portugal, managed by Brazilian Otto Gloria, were more than just Eusébio, although his individual contribution has possibly only been bettered by Diego Maradona in 1986 for Argentina. At the time, Portugal was one of western Europe’s poorest countries and it was also under the rule of a dictatorial regime. Football was an escape for the people.

Portugal kicked-off their campaign with a 3-1 win against Hungary at Old Trafford. Eusébio didn’t score and ended the game with his head bandaged. Portugal scored in the first minute through José Augusto, an easy header from a corner that caught Hungary napping. There was no turning back as Augusto scored again, the beneficiary of a dreadful blunder by Hungary keeper Szentmihalyi, and José Torres headed a third. In between, Ferenc Bene scored for the Olympic champions.

Before Portugal’s next game, against Bulgaria, Brazil had been beaten by Hungary, opening up the group and putting enormous pressure on the holders, who would have to win their last game – and win well – or face going home red-faced to Rio. Portugal won 3-0 with Eusébio getting on the scoresheet.

The meeting between Portugal and Brazil was a pivotal moment in the 1966 World Cup. Not only would it define Portugal’s own credentials, but Brazil’s departure would help clear the path for the host nation, England. Portugal were winning friends in Manchester with six goals in two games, but the meeting with Brazil, who were racing to get Pelé fit, who had received brutal treatment in the first group game against Bulgaria and had struggled to shrug off his injury. If Pelé was missing, Brazil would be psychologically ill-prepared to face a vibrant Portugal – that was the consensus.

Hungarian goalkeeper Antal Szentmihalyi (left) dives but misses the cross which is then headed into the net by Portuguese forward Jose Augusto (centre). Portugal v Hungary, July 1966.

Class and steel

Brazil had spun into a panic, made nine changes from the team that lost to Hungary, including seven players who had not appeared before in the competition.

But Eusébio was in glorious form against Brazil, scoring twice and demonstrating his power, agility and purpose. He also created Portugal’s first goal for António Simões. Eusébio’s second goal, Portugal’s third, was a venomous strike from an acute angle that forced commentators to gasp in admiration. Brazil were beaten 3-1 and Portugal were now being tipped as credible winners of the Jules Rimet Trophy.

Yet Portugal also showed they possessed a hard, cynical side to their nature, with João Morais chopping down Pelé with, to quote Brian Glanville in his seminal work on the World Cup, “a brutal, inexplicable double foul”. Morais went unpunished, which underlined the weakness of referee George McCabe, and the agricultural treatment dished out to Pelé forced him to declare he would never again play in a World Cup. “Football stopped being an art, stopped drawing the crowds by its skills, instead it became an actual war,” was how Pelé described 1966. The Brazilian legend even threatened to quit the game.

If Portugal had shown their class, as well as their steel, the other team that had captured hearts and minds were North Korea, who had shocked the Italians with a 1-0 win at Ayresome Park, catapulting Pak Doo Ik into football folklore. The two countries would meet in the quarter-final at Everton’s Goodison Park and Portugal were overwhelming favourites. In cup-tie fashion, the militaristic Koreans went 3-0 up inside 25 minutes. Portugal stayed composed and by the 60thminute, they were 4-3 ahead and Eusébio had scored all four, including two penalties. “Portugal had shown themselves as sound in temperament as in technique and Eusébio stood in what, until a few days before, had been Pelé’s place,” said John Arlott in his report of the game.

Class had told, but the diminutive Koreans left Liverpool with the crowd chanting their names. Portugal, meanwhile, were bound for Wembley, thanks to a tweak in the schedule, to face hosts England. Sir Alf Ramsey employed Nobby Stiles as Eusébio’s marker. Bobby Charlton said: “Nobby was handed the job of containing the force and talent of a player who was moving towards the zenith of his powers.”

Charlton himself scored twice for England and Ramsey’s team won 2-1, Eusébio netted a very late penalty. The boy from Mozambique was distraught at the final whistle, his tears pre-dating Paul Gascoigne’s semi-final outburst by 24 years. Eusébio remembered, “I was really sad and asked ‘lord, what have I done to deserve this?’.”

Portugal won the third and fourth place play-off and Eusébio, the competition’s leading scorer with nine goals, was named in the all-star team of 1966, along with Vicente and Mário Coluna. But this was not the start of a dynasty, not a signal that a golden era was underway. Eusébio himself became as much as a target as Pelé but remained with Benfica, despite the constant offers from Italy and Spain. Benfica reached another European Cup final in 1968, losing to Manchester United at Wembley. Portugal failed to qualify for the 1968 European Nations Cup knockout stages and then surprisingly missed-out on Mexico 1970 in a group that featured Czechoslavakia, Hungary and Denmark. They would not qualify again for the competition until 1986.

The best teams do not always win World Cups. There are some very obvious “nearly men” – Hungary 1954, Netherlands 1974, Brazil 1982. Portugal 1966 and Eusébio, the black panther, the European Pelé, were not too far behind.

Photos: PA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Paradise lost…but we’ll never forget Cruyff, Eusebio and their pals

May 1968 – the nascent Ajax and Cruyff  Photo: PA

CLUBS like Ajax and Benfica once created some of the most exciting teams we have ever seen. Today, their names still carry enormous weight, but they have been pushed into the shadows by clubs gorging on TV broadcasting fees and the rewards of globalisation.

Only 22 clubs have won the European Cup/Champions League, but of those clubs, only four or five could currently claim to be equipped to win it again: Real Madrid, Juventus, Bayern Munich and Barcelona. This season’s competition, along with the previous four, have been won by teams from this group. We are in the age of the uber club, a band that includes the aforementioned names and another group of pretenders that, at the moment, involves Atletico Madrid, Paris St. Germain, the leading English clubs and, at a push, Borussia Dortmund.

If you had compiled that list 20, 30, 40 or 50 years ago, it would have looked so different. Even today, making a roll-call of potential European champions and not including at least one representative from Milan seems strange, but both the red and blue halves of the San Siro have seen better days. Doubtless they will come again, but for the time being, Inter and AC Milan are also-rans.

The Champions League merely reminds us of the concentration of riches across European football. It seems astonishing now that teams like Steaua Bucharest, Red Star Belgrade, Nottingham Forest, Aston Villa and Hamburg have won the premier European competition, but these successes were all achieved in a time when a good team could be built outside the boundaries of elitism and surprises could occur. The very structure of UEFA’s competitions makes it nigh on impossible for a shock to take place, although 2012’s Chelsea win hardly ranked among the most anticipated of victories.

Children of their time

Sometimes, success can be the result of pure genius, of innovation, timing, good fortune and just by nurturing a “golden generation” that, for once, actually delivers. Ajax Amsterdam in the 1970s, and possibly in the 1990s, not only shook football’s establishment, but in the case of the 1970s three-time winners, set the tone for a generation. Nobody saw Total Football coming, it was “little Holland” after all, but its success was a tribute to an outstanding manager and an equally potent influence on the pitch in the form of Johan Cruyff. Then the Germans, with their veneer of efficiency and ruthless patience, took it to a different level. Ajax 1972 were of their time, an expression of the post-hippy era, but key to their success was Cruyff, truly the outstanding player of his generation. When he defected to Barcelona in 1973, the light went out and it took 20 years to find the switch again.

A team like Ajax did not have the heritage that clubs like Inter and AC Milan had when they won the European Cup in the 1960s. Italy had won the World Cup twice, in 1934 and 1938, and was a country that had been among the first to exploit the industrialisation of the game. The power in Italian football was in the north of the country, revolving around Milan and Turin. By contrast, until Cruyff and co. burst on the scene, Dutch football was still run on strictly amateur terms. Gifted some of the Dutch players might have been, but the Italians were among the first developers of “the will to win at all costs”. They were also talented footballers, so success for Inter and AC Milan was not an isolated golden period. In fact, Milan and Inter have both enjoyed success since the 1960s. AC Milan last won the Champions League in 2007 and Inter 2010, which makes their current situation all the more frustrating – both clubs’ fall from grace has been relatively sudden and somewhat symptomatic of a tired business model and ineffective ownership and may also owe something to the economic state of Italy.

Youthful vigour

While Milan and Inter threatened to send European football into a less adventurous direction in the 1960s, Benfica were the first club to break the Real Madrid stranglehold on the competition, winning against Barcelona in 1961 and Real a year later. They shared Real’s attacking philosophy, but they had a youthful vigour that suggested a long period at the top. Benfica’s jewel was, of course, Eusebio, who stunned Real in 1962, but there were other players that would make an impact on the international stage, such as Mario Coluna, Antonio Simoes and Jose Augusto. This was Benfica’s golden team, coached by the innovative Hungarian Bela Guttmann. Ajax and the Netherlands and Benfica and Portugal have something in common. Benfica reached four European Cup finals between 1961 and 1965, winning two and losing two. They were unable to deal with catenaccio, and for all their attacking prowess, they struggled when they came up against Italian defences.

In 1966, Benfica formed the backbone of the Portuguese national team that reached the semi-final of the World Cup, thanks to Eusebio’s goals. Comparisons can be drawn with Ajax’s four finals between 1969 and 1973 and the subsequent World Cup in 1974. Both teams had their time, inspired by an outstanding individual and the ideals of their coach. Portugal, like the Netherlands, could not sustain success over a long period and, in Portugal’s case, they didn’t even qualify for World Cup 1970.

Benfica never regained European pre-eminence, but then it would have been a surprise if they had. Regardless, Benfica have flirted with success for decades and have been beaten finalists no less than five times in the European Cup – 1968, 1988 and 1990 following the defeats in 1963 and 1965. Even today, Benfica remain on the fringe, reaching Europa League finals in 2013 and 2015.

Benfica is Portugal’s most popular club – there are supposedly almost six million supporters, meaning that over half of the country has some form of allegiance to the Lisbon eagles. The club is the closest Portugal has to a global football brand.

Eusebio in action against Celtic. Photo: PA

It’s the brand, stupid

And that’s what it’s [partially] all about these days. The brand, the global reach and the selling the club’s name – and merchandise – to international markets. That’s what has transformed Real Madrid, Barcelona, Manchester United and Bayern Munich (to a lesser degree) into global super clubs. Real and Barca have the advantage of tapping into a Latino market that understands their language. More than 400 million people in the world speak Spanish and La Liga is watched the world over. Benfica and Ajax cannot compete with that, although Portuguese is also the language of Brazil.

TV broadcasting fees are one of the main drivers of revenue growth at the top clubs and again, this is why Real Madrid and Barcelona, along with the English clubs, have such an advantage over Ajax and Benfica. The huge broadcasting fees commanded by the Premier and La Liga dwarf leagues such as the Dutch Eredivisie.

So while Ajax and Benfica are big players in their domestic markets, they will always struggle to compete with the top clubs in Europe, unless they stumble across a new generation of players that they can keep for their own benefit. This is highly unlikely as clubs like Ajax rely on producing talent and selling it on in order to bolster revenues. And it is easy to see why. Total revenues generated by Ajax in 2016 amounted to EUR 93m and Benfica reported EUR 152m – these figures are a fraction of Real Madrid’s EUR 620m.

The story is similar for Italy’s faded Milanese giants, although both are about to benefit from Chinese investment. AC Milan and Inter Milan generated revenues of EUR 215m and EUR 179m respectively in 2016. Italian clubs are hampered by having big stadiums that are usually owned by the local authority. This compromises stadium usage and potential earnings. Put simply, Italian clubs need smaller grounds that can exploit commercial opportunities. Juventus are leading the way here and hence, they have been on a run of success that has brought them multiple titles and two Champions League finals. This should serve as encouragement to the Milan clubs for Juve were in a difficult situation prior to 2011.

Ajax, Benfica and the Milan giants are all well supported at the turnstiles. Ajax average 48,000 at the newly renamed Cruyff Arena and Benfica have crowds of over 55,000 in Lisbon. Inter and AC Milan draw 42,000-plus crowds at the San Siro.  Despite such support, only Benfica will end 2016-17 with a championship to their name. Ajax went close but lost out to a resurgent Feyenoord, while AC Milan and Inter are both outside the top five.

Another club that enjoyed a strong European reputation and reached two European Cup finals is Celtic. Winners in 1967 and runners-up three years later, the club continued to be a force and reached semi-finals in 1972 and 1974. But today, Celtic are a shadow of their historic highs and Scottish football is at a low ebb. Celtic were always a big fish back in the days when they could look Inter Milan and Ajax in the eye, but today, the chasm is represented by a 30-point margin at the top of the table. With crowds of 55,000 at their stadium, it is difficult for anyone to compete, aside from Glasgow Rangers who are trying to get back to where they once belonged. Scottish football is one of the poorest in terms of revenue streams, notably in TV broadcasting, which places it at a big disadvantage.

Polarisation

It is therefore hard to see the likes of Celtic ever regaining their position at the top table and although Ajax and Benfica may secure “little victories” like reaching the Europa League final, being able to compete with titans like Real Madrid and Barcelona depends on two things, the ability to retain talent and drive revenues that can be invested in the team. The chances are, the status quo will remain.

There has been a noticeable trend over the course of the European Cup/Champions League’s history. In the past decade, just nine teams have reached the final and during the period, there have been six winners: Real Madrid (2), Barcelona (3), Bayern (1), Chelsea (1), Manchester United (1) and Inter Milan (1). This is the lowest per decade figure in the competition’s history. If you go back to the 1970s, 15 teams reached the final between 1968-68 and 1976-77. You have to back to 2007-08 (Chelsea v Manchester United) for the last time that a final did not include a Spanish or German team. It is clear that European football has become increasingly polarised and a handful of clubs sweeping up, thereby removing unpredictability and also creating financial imbalances. Three years ago, FIFA candidate Jerome Champagne said: “Before, European football could be described as rather homogenous, with a three- or four-gear system but with the possibility to go up and down. Now it is a two-speed football with an increasingly unbridgeable gap separating the ultra-elite of the wealthiest ones and the remaining 99 per cent of clubs.”

What this amounts to is that clubs who were once among Europe’s top bracket have been consigned to an also-ran category. It suits UEFA to have a premier competition that will be dominated by its top clubs, hence a league-type structure that will always include those top clubs and an over-bearing focus on the Champions League that classifies every other competition as second rate.

But there is a remedy and it is one that we have spoken about many times before. Slim-down the Champions League for a start and make the Europa more important. The Champions League, at its best, is riveting stuff – witness the knockout stages this season –  but it is unwittingly killing football.

What then does the future hold for these former giants of the European game? Ajax, Benfica and Celtic will remain at the forefront of their domestic leagues, there is little doubt of that. AC Milan and Inter have to hope that fresh impetus will come from their new investors and the prospect of stadium development. Can they ever compete with Real, Barca and Bayern – even Juve? Nothing is impossible on a one-off basis in football, but if you’re asking if they can win the UEFA Champions League again, it currently looks a formidable hurdle. The imbalances in the European game are just too vast, so unless there is seismic shift – and let’s not forget that Chelsea pre-2003 were nowhere in Europe – it is hard to see a sustained challenge. We have our memories of Cruyff, Eusebio et al, though.