ON DECEMBER 7 1966, the first signs of Total Football, that short-lived but glorious chapter in the evolution of the game, were spotted in Amsterdam.
That was the night that Ajax beat England’s champions, Liverpool, by 5-1 in the Olympic Stadium in the second round of the European Cup. It was the first glimpse that the British media probably had of Johan Cruyff, the pivotal figure in the development of a progressive brand of football. And it was a dent in England’s confidence just a few months after being crowned world champions.
Ajax had won the Dutch title in 1965-66 by a seven-point margin over their fierce rivals, Feyenoord. They had lost just twice in the Eredivisie and Cruyff made his mark with 25 goals in 23 league and cup appearances.
Cruyff became a firm acolyte of Rinus Michels, who had been appointed manager in January 1965 after the departure of Vic Buckingham. Michels worked with a 16-man squad and looked for versatility and flexibility in his players, encouraging full backs to attack and forwards to operate in midfield. It was from this that the seeds were sown for what became Total Football.
In the mid-1960s, nobody took Dutch football too seriously, hence the Ajax result against Liverpool sent shock waves through English football, despite Bill Shankly’s somewhat dismissive attitude.
Cruyff himself points out in his posthumous autobiography that both the Liverpool manager and Nuremburg boss Max Merkel had claimed no knowledge of the Dutch champions, preferring to reference the kitchen cleaning product, Ajax.
English clubs were still very one-dimension with regards to European football and by 1966, only Tottenham in 1963 and West Ham in 1965 had won any of the three major prizes and in both cases, they had lifted the less celebrated European Cup-Winners Cup. In the European Cup, England was still waiting for a champion.
Nevertheless, Liverpool, League Champions in 1965-66, were expected to beat Ajax very comfortably. Bill Shankly considered that Michels’ Ajax had the makings of a good team, but he took Liverpool to Amsterdam with very little knowledge of them.
It was a foggy day, one that might have inspired such isolationist headlines as “continent cut off”, and the game was doubtful. Even the Ajax players didn’t expect the tie to go ahead and arrived at the ground just 45 minutes before the scheduled kick-off.
Italian referee, Mr Shadella, allowed the match to go ahead as the players could see each other. Anyone watching from the side was out of luck, so the 55,000 people in the Olympic Stadium had to guess what they were watching. It became known as the Mistwedstrijd – the fog game.
Ajax had less trouble adapting to the murky conditions and took the lead after three minutes, Cees de Wolf, making his debut for the club, headed home after a Cruyff throw-in had been headed into the air. The Amsterdam crowd went berserk, underlining that their team was indeed the underdog.
But Ajax went two-ahead after 17 minutes through Cruyff, who finished off after a goalmouth scramble. By this time, Liverpool were looking very leaden-footed, moving one reporter to compare the white-shirted Ajax side to “ghosts flitting through the mist”.
Ajax were four-nil up by the 42nd minute, with Klaas Nuninga adding two. In the second half, Henk Groot netted Ajax’s fifth and it was only a last minute effort from Chris Lawler that reduced the deficit. Final score, Ajax 5 Liverpool 1 – Merseyside could not quite believe it.
Shankly tried to blame the defeat on the fog. “They are used to playing in fog,” was one of his throwaway comments. Yet both Ajax and Liverpool had wanted the game to go ahead – the Reds had a big game against Manchester United the following weekend and wanted to get this clash out of the way.
“I wasn’t too impressed with Ajax…they got lucky. They played defensive football on their own ground. Next week in Liverpool we will beat them 7-0,” insisted Shankly. Meanwhile Ajax winger Sjaak Swart recalled some years later the wonder of that night in Amsterdam: “It was a fairytale, no one believed it actually happened.” Cruyff got it right in his book: “In a technical sense, the English champions were blown away.”
If the Anfield fans thought that Shankly’s prediction of a seven-goal win was credible, they were soon put right. The return leg ended 2-2, with Cruyff scoring both goals for the Dutch side. The press said that Liverpool were beaten over the two games because “they ran into their superiors”. Shankly was now graceful in defeat, visiting the Ajax dressing room afterwards and congratulating each player.
The game was marred by injuries to 200 Liverpool fans because of a terrace surge at the Kop end. The Daily Mirror described it as a “human landslide” that had been caused because of a “haze hanging over the Kop”. The fans pushed forward to get a better view through the mist and at the front, dozens were injured by the crush, spilling over the barriers,
Liverpool’s pride was also dented that night, but English football also caught sight of the future in more ways than one.
MALCOLM ALLISON, that big, brash, iconic figure from the early 1970s, once said the period between 1967 and 1972 was a golden age for English football. Of course, during that time, Manchester City were quite successful, so naturally, Allison would look back on this six -year spell as special. But this was an age where the big prizes were not monopolised, no matter how hard Don Revie’s Leeds United tried to dominate the landscape.
In 1971-72, English football was coming to the end of its post-1966 boom. There were some fine players and teams around and, as this season showed, a number of genuine contenders for the major honours.
Arsenal had just won the “double”, but that triumph was exhaustive for a team that had few stars but was more about function than form. Although Bertie Mee’s side deserved enormous credit for winning the league and cup, Leeds United were arguably the outstanding team of the day. Many pundits tipped Tottenham, who had been resurgent in 1970-71 or Chelsea, the European Cup-Winners’ Cup winners in 1971. Manchester City had exciting players in Colin Bell and Francis Lee, but they were too inconsistent to be considered championship material.
Manchester United still had Best, Charlton and Law, but the latter two were ageing and less fit than in the past, and Best was living a hedonistic life that alternated between London and Manchester. Liverpool were in transition, low on flair and attacking power and less enthralling than their 1963-66 period. As for Leeds, they had experienced two heart-breaking seasons where they tried to be in contention for everything. They had an outstanding starting eleven, but their squad was a little thin, especially for battles on all fronts. Leeds were not popular outside Yorkshire, but you could not help but admire some of their football – the 7-0 win against Southampton on March 4 for example – even if it was laced with a bit of brimstone.
There was little mention of Derby County, the team managed by the outspoken and often gregarious Brian Clough. Derby had been in the top flight for two seasons since winning promotion in 1969 and after finishing fourth in 1969-70, they had slipped down the ranks a little. Besides, the midlands hadn’t provided a title-winning team since 1959 when Wolves clinched their third championship of the 1950s. The power, supposedly, was in the north, notably the Liverpool-Manchester-Leeds axis.
It was still possible for outsiders to break into the trophy-hunting pack, each club had its stars – such as Willie Carr at Coventry, Ron Davies at Southampton, Frank Worthington at Huddersfield, Derek Dougan at Wolves, Jeff Astle and Tony Brown at West Bromwich Albion, Steve Kember at Palace and Malcolm MacDonald at Newcastle, one of the big transfers of the summer of 1971. Even in lower divisions, some clubs were able to hang on to their prized assets, such as QPR’s Rodney Marsh, Ted MacDougall at Bournemouth (and Boscombe Athletic) and Don Rogers at Swindon Town.
The 1971-72 campaign started with the Football League’s referees championing a clampdown on bad behaviour. In the opening weeks, sending-offs became more regular as the new tougher regime settled. The Football League had instructed their referees to take a hard line, penalising even the most innocuous foul with a booking. Dissent, too, was forbidden and George Best was among the first casualties, sent off in Manchester United’s second game for persistent arguing.
The early pacesetters were Sheffield United and Manchester United, but neither would feature in the closing stages of the season. The former, although falling away in the second half of the season, had a very acceptable first season back in the top division, while Manchester United, under Frank O’Farrell, allowed their early form to disguise the problems in their squad. The 1971-72 season was really the last flourish of George Best, who had a good first half of the programme as United lost just twice before the end of 1971. Into 1972, United started with seven consecutive defeats and went on to lose 11 of 19 games. The collapse was quite dramatic and sent United down to eighth place at the end of the season, after being five points clear at the top at one stage. Best scored just four goals after December 31, 10 less than in the first half of the season. He was clearly fed-up and told the media: “I’m off-form and sick about the way I’m playing”. He later made headlines for the wrong reasons, going missing in London and subsequently being ordered to adopt a more homely lifestyle with his old landlady.
United tried to bolster their attack with the signing of Ian Storey-Moore of Nottingham Forest, a transfer that proved to be very controversial. Storey-Moore was originally heading for Derby County where a £ 225,000 deal had supposedly been agreed. Storey-Moore was paraded in front of the Baseball Ground crowd, but at the last minute, the player decided to join Manchester United. Storey-Moore had said he was “joining a great club” in signing for Derby, but it was later revealed that his wife had changed his mind. Clough was livid, and probably a little embarrassed, but the Derby manager must have been pleased that he did not sign Storey-Moore after all. The player was forced to retire through injury just two years later.
London’s top trio, like Manchester United, failed to last the distance. Arsenal, who had lost their coach Don Howe to West Bromwich Albion, started the season well, reinforced their squad with Alan Ball from a strangely declining Everton, but ended up way off the pace. Arsenal’s ability to grind out results in their double season seemed to have been lost at times – they had various periods where they lost consecutive games and their home form – one of the key elements of 1970-71 – was nowhere near as impressive. Although the Gunners reached the FA Cup final, their fifth final in five seasons, there was sense of anti-climax.
Tottenham were heavily focused on their European campaign and although they had flashes of brilliance in the league, they were never as convincing as they had been in 1970-71. Spurs won the UEFA Cup against Wolverhampton Wanderers after a run that includes games against teams from Iceland, France, Romania and Italy (AC Milan).
Chelsea began the season dreadfully, losing three of their first four games and it was not until October that they regained their composure, by which time they were too far behind to be considered challengers. At one stage, it looked as though they might force their way in, but after being knocked out of the FA Cup and losing the Football League Cup final in the space of eight days, their season was never as convincing after the first week of March.
The championship had, by March, settled into a four-way battle between Manchester City, Leeds United, Derby County and Liverpool. City were four points clear after beating Everton away on March 11 and of the four, Shankly’s Liverpool were considered to be too far off the summit. Liverpool had settled into a characteristic run after indifferent form in the autumn and Kevin Keegan, a relatively unknown player before he joined the club in May 1971, had become one of the finds of the season. Liverpool went from early February to May day without defeat, taking them to the brink of the title.
City extended their lead to five points on March 18 and gave Rodney Marsh his debut after signing from Queens Park Rangers for £ 200,000. Marsh’s arrival seemed to upset City’s flow, though and two weeks later, they had lost the lead to Derby after a 2-1 home defeat at the hands of Stoke. Derby had leapt to the top after beating Leeds 2-0 at the Baseball Ground. Leeds were carrying a few injuries but they were no match for Derby, who never allowed them to settle on the ball. Don Revie was full of praise for Derby’s performance and said that if his team did not win the league, then Derby would be champions.
City were certainly blowing their chance, following that home defeat against Stoke with another defeat at Southampton. They won their next two games against West Ham and Manchester United by 3-1, but one point from two away games, at Coventry and Ipswich, left them with one game to go, on April 22 at home to Derby.
City won 2-0 at Maine Road with Francis Lee and Rodney Marsh on the scoresheet and although they were top with 57 points, they had finished their league programme. With Liverpool (played 40) and Derby (41) one point behind, and Leeds (40) on 55, City had little chance of finishing ahead of this trio.
In fact, Liverpool and Leeds were now favourites. On May 1, two games took place that would throw more light on the title race – Derby beating Liverpool 1-0 courtesy of a John McGovern goal and Leeds winning 2-0 against Chelsea at Elland Road. Leeds were now closing-in on what they hoped would be the double. They had to face Arsenal on May 6 in the FA Cup final, and their last league game was two days later against Wolves at Molineux. Liverpool, meanwhile, still had a chance, but had to visit Arsenal on the same night.
Leeds completed the first leg of their double by beating Arsenal 1-0 at Wembley thanks to an Allan Clarke goal. The celebrations had to be put on hold as the trip to Wolves at the end of a gruelling schedule was ahead of Revie’s side. Derby, meanwhile, finished with 58 points from 42 games and were top, and were now sunning themselves on a club holiday in Majorca.
The league table underlined the tight situation:
If Liverpool won and Leeds failed to get a point at Wolves, then Shankly’s team would be champions. But if Liverpool only drew and Leeds lost, Brian Clough’s holidaying side would win the title. Leeds needed just a single point to win their second league championship.
It was, understandably, a tense night in north London and Wolverhampton. Don Revie said his team would go all out for victory: “I reckon it would be soccer suicide to adopt a defensive style of play. Attack is the best form of defence against Wolves. I cannot recall a team being forced to play a championship decider so soon after appearing in a Wembley cup final, but I am convinced there is sufficient character in this Leeds team to accept the challenge and emerge triumphant.”
Revie had asked for the game to be delayed to mid-May, but the Football League wouldn’t have it. Not for the first time, Leeds and their fans felt victims of a conspiracy to make sure their club did not win a major trophy.
It was an evening of drama. Leeds came out full of vigour and had a penalty appeal turned down in both halves. In between, Wolves took a first half lead through Francis Munro and despite pressure from Leeds, they doubled their advantage on 67 minutes when Derek Dougan scored. Billy Bremner pulled one back for the FA Cup winners, but Wolves held on to win 2-1. Over at Highbury, the game between Arsenal and Liverpool ended goalless.
Liverpool, though, were denied the title two minutes from time when John Toshack put the ball in the net but the “goal” was ruled out for offside. Bill Shankly was an unhappy man: “We have been deprived of the championship by a diabolical decision. It is a heartbreaking thing to happen to my young lads after their magnificent challenge.” Shankly added, though, that Derby were the best team Liverpool had faced in 1971-72.
Jack Charlton declared that he was “as sick as a pig” as Leeds trudged out of Molineux. Revie, in his Yorkshire Evening Post column, congratulated Derby, but was understandably bitter. “Deep down, I cannot accept they deserved to snatch the title from Leeds United’s grasp. It would be hypocritical for me to say that Derby won the gripping championship race because they were the best side. It was more a case of Leeds failing to get the breaks needed when chasing the elusive double. We have done remarkably well to finish second in the table in view of the setbacks experienced during the last eight months. The worst blow, of course, was the League’s decision to force us to play our last League fixture against Wolves just two days after appearing in the FA Cup final.”
Brian Clough, who was in the Scilly Isles, commented: “It is incredible. I believe they played four and a half minutes of injury time at Molineux – if seemed like four and a half years to me. There is nothing I can say to sum up my feelings adequately.”
The controversy didn’t stop in 1972, however. There was talk of bribery and rumours that Leeds tried to get Wolves to “throw” the game. It raged on for years. It did little to devalue Derby’s triumph, which Brian Clough said was “one of the miracles of the century”. It was certainly one of the most absorbing championship seasons in British football history. If only we could have such a close-run, multi-club title race today.
BENFICA are to Portugal what Real Madrid and Juventus are to Spain and Italy. In other words, wherever you go in the country, fans of the club can be found, from Algarve villages to the biggest towns and cities.
And across Europe, wherever there are Portuguese people, the chances are they will be Benfica fans, hence the club has developed into a more global institution than some of its rivals. For example, when Benfica won the Primeira Liga title in 2018, London was awash with fans of As Águias celebrating their latest triumph.
Outside the top dozen clubs, Benfica rank among the best of a second tier, a great name from the early years of pan-European club competition, one that excited fans right across the continent and gave the world some magnificent players, such as the brilliant Eusébio.
Benfica still manage to hold their own in Europe and are regular UEFA Champions league participants (15 times since 1992-93) and have reached two Europa League finals in the past eight years. Domestically, Benfica, Porto and, to a lesser extent, Sporting, dominate Portuguese football. In fact, of the 85 league titles, 37 have been won by Benfica, 28 by Porto and 18 have gone to Sporting. Only twice, in 1946 (Belenenses) and 2001 (Boavista) has the trophy been lifted by any other contender. This lack of strength in depth has undoubtedly hampered Portuguese football, but the country’s top clubs have gained a strong reputation as “talent factories” and have earned considerable sums of money from player trading. Indeed, CIES Football Observatory, in April 2020, revealed that Benfica are the number two club in the world for providing a “stepping stone” for players. Only Ajax have a better record in bringing top talent through. Sporting (5th) and Porto (8th) have also excelled at player development.
In some ways, Portuguese clubs have carved a niche for themselves in providing a market that can be tapped into by the clubs from the “big five” leagues, Spain, England, Germany, Italy and France. With Benfica and Porto, in particular, able to benefit from regular Champions League football, these clubs fill a gap between the very top clubs and the regular Europa League participants. Benfica may not be Real Madrid, but the combination of the club’s heritage, its role as a player nursery and UEFA money places them in a decent position in European football’s hierarchy.
If a European Super League ever becomes reality, there will be some people outside of Lisbon that will call for Benfica to be included. Their two European Cups, in 1961 and 1962, may have been a long time ago, but they are still a huge football institution. The dilemma for Benfica and a number of clubs who have been pushed to the sidelines by contemporary corporate football, is how to join that elite band or find other ways to grow. Benfica are a well-known global name, thanks to the Portuguese diaspora, the legend of Eusébio and the club’s European heritage, which is substantial. Can Benfica make the leap from top of the second tier of the European game? And if so, what is it going to take? Is Portugal too small a market to allow that to happen without a big foreign investor transforming the club into a southern European Paris Saint-Germain? Whatever the future brings, Benfica will remain one of the grand names of world football.